Saturday, December 29, 2012

How the Kindreds Came to Logan County

The Kindreds did not always reside in Logan County. Here is an account of how our family came to reside in Logan County.

For this story, we begin in 1690 (possibly 1692) not in the (non-existent) United States but in England. William Edward Kindred is born to unknown parents in the Haltwhistle Parish in North Cumberland County, England. This part of England is in the north, not far from the border of Scotland. (The Kindred name finds itself in the Haltwhistle Parish record beginning around 1680).

We do not know much about William outside of the fact that he married Jane Colson and had six children. The marriage takes place April 17, 1710, in Haltwhistle Parish. The children are Thomas (1711-1763), William (1712-?), Mary (1714-1714), Anne (1719-?), Elizabeth (1721-?), Jane (1724-1766), Bartholomew (1727-1805), and John (1728-1803).

We pick up the story again with Bartholomew in Northumberland County, England. Young Bartholomew marries Paradine in 1743 in the home county, and they have a child named William (born 1744). For reasons unknown, Bartholomew also marries Mary Carrick on June 18, 1748, in Northumberland. Together they have eight children.

The unrest in England appears to be more than the Kindreds can bear. We know not if they sought religious freedom, adventure, excitement, financial freedom, or all of the above, but sometime in the late 1700's, William and his family board a ship bound for a new land.

And so we find the Kindreds in popular Albemarle County, Virginia (home of Thomas Jefferson and others). William (son of Bartholomew, Sr., and Paradine) marries Mary Overton "Polly" Haggard on March 15, 1780, in Albemarle County. The two waste no time in making a family in the new land. And William has certainly staked his love for his new country. Sometime between 1775-1783, William fights for his new country in the Revolutionary War, serving as Private in the army. We do not know why William and his parents came over from England, but it is evident that the new love of country is worth dying for. America wins its freedom on the backs of many soldiers, one being William Kindred.

William and Mary raise eight children: Elizabeth Jean (1781-1848), John Ty (1781-1830), Nathaniel (1782-1839), Martin (1785-1865), Nancy Jean (1787-1826), David (1788-1873), William, Jr. (1794-1867), and Jane (1795-?). The young country is rapidly expanding, and new adventure and pursuits lie to the open west. The Kindreds can't wait, and William and Mary move their family out to the far west sometime between the birth of Nancy in 1787 and David in 1788. Nancy is born in Albemarle County, Virginia, while David and the rest of the children will be born in the family's new home: Kentucky. At the time, Kentucky was part of the American West!
The first record we have of the Kindred family in the United States comes with the 1810 United States Census. The family has moved out west, and while split up into different households, the Kindreds have stayed together in their move to Kentucky. We find them in Madison County as free citizens. William, John, and David live in the same county but in different homes. The census records William's family with two free white males, one aged 10-15 and one aged 45 and over. William also has two free white females at home, one aged 10-15 and one aged 45 and over.

John has three free white males in his family, two under age 10 and one aged 26-44 (himself). In his home he also has two free white females under age 10 and one free white female aged 16-25 (his wife).

David has moved out but has no children. In his home he lists himself as one free white male aged 16-25 with his wife as one free white female aged 16-25.

1810 United States Census, Madison County, Kentucky

With his family already making the move out west, William is born March 20, 1794, in Boonesborough, Madison County, Kentucky. Little William, named in honor of his father (and great grandfather!) would be the free male child aged 10-15 in the 1810 census above . Years pass, and at the age of 22, he marries Mary Rice Garland in Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky.

His grandfather William Kindred, the Revolutionary War veteran, dies in 1833. He is buried in Old Red Lick Cemetery, Madison County, Kentucky.

William Kindred, Revolutionary War Veteran, 1744-1833

Young William and Mary quickly build a large family. The young United States is growing rapidly, and the country finally records this little family living in Kentucky with the 1850 United States Census (William is one page with family following on the next page). William (aged 56) is still married to Mary (53), and they have five children still living at home: Eliza (20), Joshua (18), Julina (16), Coleb (14), and Daniel (11). As with most of the rest of the population, William is a farmer.

1850 United States Census, District Number 1, Madison County, Ketucky

1850 United States Census, District Number 1, Madison County, Kentucky
The couple has 12 children. Of importance to note is that one of the children has moved out by the time the 1850 census rolls around. Anderson Kindred was born to William and Mary on September 28, 1822, in Madison County, Kentucky. He grows up and moves from Madison County, Kentucky, over to Estill, County, Kentucky. He marries Sallie Ann Ruble on February 14, 1844.

We find this couple living in Estill County, Kentucky, with their family of three children during the 1850 United States Census. Anderson and Sallie A.'s three children are: William G. (5), James M. (3), and Lewis D. (3 months). The couple show real estate value of $300, and quite interestingly enough, both are listed as "persons over 20 years of age who cannot read and write." Anderson is a farmer.

1850 United States Census, Estill County, Kentucky

Ten years later in 1860, we find Anderson (shown as Andrew) and Sally still living in Estill County, Kentucky. Andrew (38) and Sally (36) are living with children William (15), James (13), Lewis (11), Ino (9), Mary (6), Nancy (2), and Sarah (8 months). Andrew is still a farmer and shows real estate value of $800 and personal estate value of $1000. Andrew can still not read or write.

The nation is fighting a contentious battle over slavery during these next several years, and Kentucky enlists the draft for the Civil War. Even though he is married and aged 42, Anderson Kindred is enlisted under the Class II rules. He is subject to do military duty in the 8th District and still shows Estill County as his residence. He is enlisted for military duty in either July or December of 1863.

Anderson Kindred enlisted for Civil War duty, Estill County, Kentucky, 1863

We do not know much about Anderson Kindred and his involvement in the Civil War. We find Anderson and Sally still living in Kentucky in 1870, although they have moved back to the home of Madison County. Anderson (48) and Sally (47) live with their following children: James (23), Amanda (19), Lewis (20), John (18), Mary (16), Nancy (12), Sarah (9), and Martin (7). Anderson shows real estate value of $1200 and personal estate value of $500. Sally cannot write, nor can young children Nancy, Sarah, or Martin. Martin also cannot read. All three youngest children show having attended school in the past year. Anderson is listed as able to vote and works as a farmer. His sons James, Lewis, and John are farm laborers.

1870 United States Census, Yates Precinct, Madison County, Kentucky

Sometime between 1870 and 1880, little Nancy moves out and marries a man by the name of John Cates. Not much is known about this couple outside of the fact that they have several children. In 1900, we learn that John is raising his family alone in the Red Lick District of Estill County. It is unclear what happened to Nancy Cates. John (42) lives with children Seth (19), Addie (13), Claude (11), Stanford (10), Sallie (8), and Willie (7). John is a farm laborer, while son Seth is a farmer. John is shown as owning a home.

1900 United States Census, Red Lick Magisterial District, Estill County, Kentucky

In 1910, the family has taken on a different shape. It appears that father John has died. That leaves the eldest son Seth has head of the household. He has married Iola, and they have been married for seven years. Claude (21), Stanford (19), and William (17) join the young couple in the house. Seth is a farmer on a general farm, Claude is a laborer on a general farm, Stanford is a salesman at a grocery store, and William is a wagon driver for a livery store. The family rents a house, and Iola is shown as having one child, though none of which are still living.

1910 United States Census, Madison County, Kentucky
Shortly after this census, Claude Cates marries Ada White on August 15, 1911. Claude and Ada will have three children. Mary Louise is born in 1912, and Odessa Laverne is born February 17, 1914, in Madison County, Kentucky.

During the next several years, the United States would become well-involved with World War I. The Cates family was not exempt, and young Claude is drafted into service. His World War I registration cards show that he is a natural-born citizen of the United States, born in Estill County, Kentucky, June 10, 1889. He has a wife and two children. He is listed as tall and of medium build with blue eyes and brown hair.

The story is unknown, but the registration card shows Claude not claiming exemption from World War I, with him personally signing the card underneath. However, his witness disagrees and chooses to write a note to that effect: "He should claim exemption, having a wife and two solely dependent on his day labor." We learn that his day labor is a "coaler." On the draft card, the "no" is crossed out on claiming an exemption from the war...only to be written in again. Is Claude so adamant on fighting for his country in World War I that he does not heed the advice and recommendation of the witness? We'll never know.

Claude Cates, World War I Registration Card

In 1920, we find Claude and Ada living for the first time in Illinois. They have moved with their two daughters up to Hittle Township in Tazewell County, Illinois. Claude (31) and Ada (22) live with daughters Louise (7) and Odessa (6). Claude is a laborer on a general farm.

1920 United States Census, Hittle Township, Tazewell County, Illinois

In 1930, we find Claude and Ada still residing in Hittle Township in Tazewell County, Illinois. Claude (41) and Ada (32) are still living with daughters Mary Louise (17) and Odessa Laverne (16). Note that Ada was only 14 years old when she was married. Claude robbed the cradle!!! This trend would continue in this family line. :) Claude and family rent a house, but they do own a radio set. Claude is a farmer, though we do learn that he is not a war veteran, so although registering for the draft of World War I, he saw no action.

1930 United States Census, Hittle Township, Tazewell County, Illinois

Having enlisted for the draft of World War I, it appears that nothing would stop Claude from honoring his country yet again thirty years later. During World War II, Claude again registers for the draft, though he is now 54 years old!!! For the first time, the Cates family is listed in Logan County, Illinois, with Atlanta being the place of residence.

Claude Cates, World War II Registration Card

And now for the rest of the story. The story of how the Kindreds came to Illinois really two stories in one. More on that later. But let's back up to Anderson Kindred, our Revolutionary War veteran. He had a daughter named Nancy that led us up to Claude Cates and Logan County. But he also had a son named John. And that's where we pick up the story...all the way back in 1880 again.

John Kindred is the son of Anderson Kindred. Shown as neighbors to his father Anderson, he marries Ellen and together they have two children by 1880: Leonard (4), Leslie (2), and Allen (5 months). John Allen also lives in the same house and is listed as a boarder. He is 26 years old and is a laborer and is listed as having "sore eyes." John Kindred works on a farm.

1880 United States Census, District Number 75, Madison County, Kentucky

We find Leslie Kindred in Illinois after 20 more years. It is unknown exactly when he moved to the north. Leslie is now 22 years old and is listed as a servant in the home of Enoch Hieronymus (84 years old) and wife Virginia Hieronymus (46 years old). Leslie is also listed as a farm laborer. He is residing in Hittle Township, Tazewell County, Illinois (we know his sister Nancy will follow by 1920).

1900 United States Census, Hittle Township, Tazewell County, Illinois

Just like his nephew Claude (from Nancy and John Cates), Leslie joins the war effort during World War I. He registers for the draft at the age of 40 years.

Leslie Kindred, World War I Registration Cards, September 12, 1918

In 1920, we find Leslie Kindred married. He has married Ferne and already has a family of his own. Leslie (41) and his wife Ferne (37) live with their five children: Elsie V. (11), Richard E. (9), Lila Bernise (7), Lowell Leslie (6), and Martha S. (1 year, 7 months). Leslie and family rent their home, and he is listed as farmer on a general farm in Waynesville Township, DeWitt County, Illinois.

1920 United States Census, Waynesville Township, DeWitt County, Illinois

In 1930, Leslie and family have moved yet again. This time, they reside in District 2 of the Atlanta Township, Logan County, Illinois. Leslie (52) and Ferne (43) are living with children: Elsie (21), Earl (19), Lila (18), Lowell (16), Serena (11), and Robert (7). Leslie is a farmer on a general farm, and his family does not live on a farm. The family rents their home and pays $15/month for rent. Both Leslie and Earl are farm laborers on a general farm, while Lowell is a bell boy at a hotel. Ferne's parents were both born in Ohio.

1930 United States Census, Atlanta Township, Logan County, Illinois

Anderson Kindred's great grandson Lowell Leslie has finally made it to Logan County, Illinois. As the story showed above, Anderson Kindred's great granddaughter Odessa Laverne has also made it to Logan County. You know where this is going.

On May 2, 1934, Lowell Leslie married his second cousin Odessa Laverne. The Kindreds have finally made it to Logan County, Illinois...twice.

How the Polleys Came to Logan County

Here is an account of how we arrived in Logan County.

We pick up the story in Kentucky in 1850. Elet Houston Chowning is but a one-year-old child living with his family of nine in Henry County, Kentucky. The parents John Chowning (aged 50) and Mary [Wagner] (38), live with children G Chowning (16), ??? Chowning (9), James (7), Mary A. (6), Butler (4), Ann (3), and Houston (1).

1850 United States Census, District 2, Henry County, Kentucky

Sometime between 1850 and 1870, the Chownings make it to Illinois. The 1870 census shows them residing in Cass County, Illinois, although much of the family has moved on. John is a farmer and is shown owning real estate valued at $600 and personal estate valued at $500. Elet (aged 20) is a farm hand. His father John is 73, his mother 58, and his little brother George is 15. [Due to likely census errors, John is only 12 years older than Mary in 1870 but is shown as being 15 years older in 1880!]

1870 United States Census, Lancaster Precinct, Cass County, Illinois

In 1880, Elet Houston has begun his own family. He has moved over to Eminence Township in Logan County, Illinois, the first record we have of our family living in Logan County. Elet is 29 years old and married to Louisa (Louiza) [Ware] who is 24 years old. They are already busy raising two daughters: Addie M. (6) and Edith L. (4). Elet is listed as a farmer. His wife Louisa was born in Illinois, but both of her parents were born in Kentucky just as Elet's were. Mary is still alive at 67 years old and is living in the same house with her son, daughter-in-law, and two grand-daughters.

1880 United States Census, Eminence Township, Logan County, Illinois

By the time 1900 comes around, we learn that Elet and family temporarily left Eminence Township for reasons uknown. The 1900 census shows Elet Houston (aged 50) living with his wife Louisa (aged 44) of 26 years. They are living with daughter Addis (25 years old now and married for six years), Ida (12), twins Lola and Lula (6), and young Bertha (3). But note that Ida, Lola, and Lula were all born in Nebraska! Sometime between 1880 and 1900, Elet takes his family out to Nebraska. The birth dates show us that the family was living in Nebraska in at least 1887 and 1893 but were back in Illinois at Bertha's birthdate of 1896. Also in the house are two grandchildren: Addis' two sons Fredie E. (5) and Harold (4). A total of nine people are living in this house in Eminence Township! (It is unknown if Addis' husband is living or lives in the house, as well).

Also, this census shows us that Louisa has eight children, all of whom are still living. With the five still living in the house, it appears that three others have already grown and moved on to families of their own between 1880 and 1900.

The census shows Elet being a farm laborer who rents a house, a common theme we will see with our family.

1900 United States Census, Eminence Township, Logan County, Illinois

In 1910, Elet and Louisa have now been married for 36 years. An additional child has been added and nine of the nine children are still living. Elet is 60 years old; Louisa is 54. Daughters Lola (16) and Bertha (13) are still living at home with the ninth child, a son named Glenn (10).

Elet's occupation is listed as "general farm" (as opposed to "home farm") and is shown still renting a house.

1910 United States Census, Eminence Township, Logan County, Illinois

In 1920, Elet and Louisa Chowning have moved out of Eminence Township and now reside in Atlanta Township. They have been married for 46 years now. They finally now own a home of their own, although they are listed as having a mortgage on it. Elet is 70 years old, and Louisa is 64. Both appear to be retired as their occupations read "none."

1920 United States Census, Atlanta Township, Logan County, Illinois

Neither parent would make it to the next census. Elet Houston would die April 7, 1923, and Louisa would die three years later on August 1, 1926. (But not before she was able to meet her grandson Robert!).

This is how the Chownings came to reside in Logan County, Illinois.

Now for the other half.

We pick up this story again in Kentucky, this time in 1870. James Polley (Polly), born in Ohio, is raising a family in Esculapia Precinct, Kentucky (near Tollesboro). Already aged 61 at this time, he is married to his wife Diana, aged 57. She was also born in Ohio. They are busy raising a family of five children: George R. (21), Priscilla (25), Francis (16), James B. (14), and Austin D. (11). As most other families were in the day, James Polley is a "farm laborer", joined by his sons George, Francis, and James. Perhaps the most interesting note is that neither James Sr. nor James Jr. is able to read, and no one outside of Little Austin is able to write! This story begins with an uneducated family in rural America.

1870 United States Census, Esculapia Precinct, Lewis County, Kentucky

In 1880, James Polley and family are still found in Kentucky. James is now 70 years old and Diannah (sp?) is 68. James now shows he was born in Kentucky rather than Ohio (unknown if it was he or the census writer who is wrong), although both James' and Diana's parents are shown as being born in Ohio. James and Diana still live with Priscilla (36), George W. (30), Marion [Francis?] (26), James B. (23), and Ostian D. [Austin] (21). James is a farmer with George also working on a farm (unknown if the same farm). Marian, James, and Austin are all shown as laborers. Priscilla and George are shown as being unable to read, with Diana, Priscilla, George, and Marian still unable to write. It appears that father James, younger James B., and Austin all learned to read and write.

1880 United States Census, District 61, Tollesboro Precinct #7, Lewis County, Kentucky

This Polley family appears to have stayed in Lewis County, Kentucky, for the next 20 years. Not much is known about them during this time. In 1900, we pick the story back up with little James B. Polley, who is actually not little at all. "Young" James B. Polley is now 43 years old with a family of his own. He married Louisa M. (40), of whom they list six children still living with them: Elsie C. (16), Ernest E. (14), Leslie E. (12), Bessie P. (10), Alda E. (8), and Nellie M. (4). James Buchanan is listed as a farmer who rents a house.

The children are all educated although Ernest is unable to write. The children attend school for 3,4,4,4, and 3 months respectively with Nellie not at all. James and Louisa have been married for 18 years at this point with Louisa having had nine children, seven of whom are still living. The census would show this to be a reality for most families in this area. Also of importance is that Louisa's mother was born in Ohio.

1900 United States Census, Magisterial District No. 6, Lewis County, Kentucky

In 1910, James Buchanan seems to have done well for himself and family. He is shown owning a farm free and clear in Lewis County, Kentucky. All children are able to read and write with the exception of Leslie who cannot write. Only three children are still living at the home.

1910 United States Census, Esculapia Precinct, Magisterial District #6, Lewis County, Kentucky

Sometime between 1910 and 1920, James Buchanan moves his family up to Eminence Township in Logan County, Illinois. It is unknown exactly when this move takes place.

This is the story of how the Polley's came to Logan County.

And now for the conclusion of the story.

Before the census came around again in 1920, two people had their lives merged somewhere in the middle of Illinois. Bertha Chowning, daughter of Elet Houston and Louisa Chowning, would somehow come to meet Alva Emerton Polley, son of James Buchanan and Louisa M. Polley. These two would marry February 19, 1919, in McClean County, Illinois, and come to reside in Eminence Township, Logan County. The 1920 census shows the newlyweds Alva and Bertha still carrying on the tradition of farming that both had known since childhood. Alva E. (28 years old) is now married to Bertha P. (23) and is a laborer on a farm, oddly enough working on the same farm as his father. James B. (63 years old) and Eliza M. (60) also made the journey up north to Eminence Township, living close to their son and new daughter-in-law. Both families are shown renting houses.

1920 United States Census, Eminence Township, Logan County, Illinois

The family tradition would be no different. Alva and Bertha will have a son named Robert Omar Polley. As Robert grows up with his dad in Logan County, both will work on the same farms together, will young Robert knowing nothing else other than farming his entire childhood.

Robert Omar Polley will have three children of his own (a fourth was miscarried), and he passes on the tradition that he has always known. Robert Omar Polley will buy a farm in Eminence Township in 1964, and his sons Robert, Jr. and Eric will help with the physical labor and chores.

The Polley family has worked Logan County soil, particularly Eminence Township soil, for more than a century.

How the Longs Came to Logan County

The Long's did not always live in Logan County. Here's an account of how we arrived in Logan County.

We pick up the story in Kentucky in 1870. Felix Long, age 40, is a farmer in Hardinsville Precinct, Kentucky. His wife Elizabeth (45 years old) is keeping the house with children James (15), Sallie (13), and Ellen (10) at home. The family shows real estate of only $100 and personal estate of $100. None of the five can write, and Sallie and Ellen are still unable to read.

1870 United States Census, Hardinsville Precinct, Kentucky

Ten years later in 1880, the Long family is not doing so well. Felix S. Long is now 57 years old and listed as a farmer but has come down with rheumatism. The census enumerator also records him as being deaf and dumb. What is more, his wife Elizabeth, now 64 years old, is listed as "maimed, crippled, bedridden, or otherwise disabled." James is now 28 and works on a farm; Sarah E. (Sallie?) is 26 and Phoebe E. is 22. We also learn here that Elizabeth was born in Kentucky, but both of her parents were born in Virginia.

1880 United States Census, Hardinsville County, Shelby County, Kentucky

Twenty years pass by, and little James has moved out and has a family of his own now. James Roland (49 years old) and Mattie E. (38 years old) have now been married for 17 years now and live in the Alton Precinct in Kentucky with their large family. Mattie has had nine children, of whom nine are still living. The children are as follows: Katie R. (15), Betty E. (13), William (11), Richard S. (10), Oppha? (9), James P. (7), Eugene L. (4), Oskar T. (2), and Ina B. (2 months). Father James Roland works as "farm labor" but shows four months of unemployment the previous year. His son William shows his work as "day labor" and shows five months of unemployment himself. The children have attended five months of school the previous year, and each member of the family can read and write outside of Oppha who can't write and James who can't read or write.

1900 United States Census, Alton Precinct, Anderson County, Kentucky

Ten years later, James Roland Long and family still live in Kentucky. They have moved over to the Taylorsville Precinct in Spencer County, Kentucky, however. James and Mattie have been married for 29 years now, and all nine children are still living, though only four still live at home. These four are: Richard S. (20), Eugene S. (15), Oscar T. (13), and Ina B. (11). James is listed as a farmer with general farm duties. Richard is listed as a laborer on a farm. Eugene and Oscar both farm laborers on the home farm, and Ina is too young to work. Schooling does not seem to have had its effect, as Richard cannot read or write, Eugene can read but cannot write, Oscar cannot read or write, and Ina cannot read or write.

1910 United States Census, Taylorsville Precinct, Spencer County, Kentucky

Ten more years pass, and Roland has moved his family north to Indiana. James and Mattie are now 70 and 69 years old respectively. Only Oscar Thurman still remains living with mom and dad, and he is now 23 years old. James and Mattie appear to be retired as no job is listed for either, while Oscar is a wage worker at a furniture factory. The parents are renting their home, and Oscar has learned how to read and write sometime in the past decade.

1920 United States Census, Washington Township, Washington County, Indiana
Both Felix and Mattie will die before the next census comes around. But young Oscar wasted no time in starting his own family. Just after the 1920 census, Oscar marries his wife Edith. The 1930 census shows Oscar being 22 years old and Edith just 17. By the time 1930 comes around, 32-year-old Oscar and 27-year-old Edith already have four children: Kathleen (9), Louise (7), Margaret (5 and 3 months), and Mary Lou (2 months). What is interesting to note is that the family has a radio set (a question asked on this year's census). Oscar moved his young family westward to Illinois. The entire family lives on a farm, though the enumerator is unsure if the family owns or rents the home. Edith and her parents were both born in Indiana. Oscar is a laborer on a dairy farm, while the rest of the members show no jobs.

1930 United States Census, Mount Hope Township, McClean County, Illinois

The family moves yet again sometime in the 1930's. In 1940, we find Oscar and family now residing in Atlanta Township, Logan County, Illinois. For the first time, we find the Long's in Logan County. Oscar is 42 years old, and Edith is 36. Three more children have now been added to the family. In the house, we now have nine people: Oscar, Edith, Kathleen (18), Louise (17), Margaret (15), Mary Lou (10), Earl (6), Harold (4), and Kenneth (2). Once again, the entire family is living on a farm. Oscar shows a typical work week of 50 hours as a "farmer" "on a farm" for his occupation. He worked 52 weeks out of the year for an unknown income and rents a home for his family. Kathleen is the only other one shown working, and she worked 10 weeks out of the year, 48 hours a week, for an annual income of $50.

1940 United States Census, Atlanta Township, Logan County, Illinois

Little six-year-old Earl is where the story continues. Earl will meet a young Gwendolyn Kindred and start a family of his own, staying close to the home he always knew as a child: Atlanta, Illinois.

The Longs have arrived in Logan County.

How the Leathers Came to Logan County

The Leathers sent only one family member to Logan County, but that is all that it took to intertwine with the Polley name. Here is an account of how Miss Betty Jane Leathers came to reside in Logan County.

For this story, we travel all the way back to the Netherlands in 1728. A ship called the Mortonhouse, full of 205 passengers, is leaving the port of Rotterdam for a trip to a new land. The ship is under the command of Master Jonathan Coultas. The final records show 69 women, 56 children, and 80 men on this ship. One of the men on the ship is named Frederick Leder. After crossing the Atlantic Ocean, he and the ship would arrive in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on August 24, 1728. The members of the ship would all have taken the oath of allegiance for this new land.

Frederick ends up having a son whom he also names Frederick. Frederick, Jr., also has a son whom he names Frederick. And this is where we pick up the story.

Frederick III was the son of Frederick Leathers, Jr. and Jane Strickler.

He married Barbara Shirk. [Her great-grandfather, Ulrich Schurch, and Frederick's grandfather, Frederick Leder I both came to America on the same ship, the Mortonhouse, in 1728. They lived in York Co. and then Centre Co., Penn.] Their children were all born in Pennsylvania and married in Ohio.

Just before moving to Ohio, Frederick III and Barbara have a son on January 10, 1800, in Pennsylvania whom they name Christian. Around 1800 (before Ohio became a state in 1803) Frederick moved his family to Amanda, Fairfield County, Ohio.

According to "A Complete History of Fairfield County" written in 1877, Frederick Leathers was actually the first white settler on the land in Amanda Township. "Frederick Leathers is spoken of as the first settler" (page 83). And "Frederick Leathers settled in the southern part of the township in about the year 1800" (page 226). He is shown to have run a tavern of which he later sold to Isaac Griffith. He is said to have built the first log-house in the area, a two-story structure with the old-style tavern on the first floor. The first Mennonite church also met at this same tavern.

In 1802, only three or four cabins exist on the route between Zanesville and Lancaster. And the Leathers House and another Swygart cabin are referred to as the only two structures between Lancaster and where a party stopped on Clear Creek. Frederick really is a pioneer of the land. He is listed as a taxpayer in Amanda Township in 1806.

He is also listed as a Private in April 1813 during the War of 1812.

Frederick III dies in 1821 and is presumed to have been buried in Fairfield County, though the grave has not been found. His son Christian starts his own family. According to the History of Van Wert and Mercer County, "Christian Leathers was born in Pennsylvania in 1800, but was brought to Ohio by his parents in the same year. Here he was raised and occupied as a farmer until 1832, when he married Catherine Shupe [other records indicate the marriage in 1824] and moved to Fairfield County, where he remained until 1850. He then moved to Van Wert and on arrival there first stopped with Smith Hill, one of the pioneers of that county. A short time afterward, Mr. Leathers located in Ridge Township and, assisted by his sons commenced cleaning the land. Both he and his wife were life-long members of the Lutheran Church. He died in 1864. His wife survived her 76th birthday in 1879, on which occasion a family reunion was held and 50 relatives were present. She died the next day of heart trouble." (1882, page 204).

The 1850 United States Census shows Christian (50) married to Catherine (46) and living with children Mary (18), Harrison (15), John F. (13), Abram (9), and Sarah M. (6). Older children Noah, Lewis, and Elizabeth have already moved out. Christian is a farmer as is his son Harrison. The census shows Christian being born in Pennsylvania while Catherine was born in Maryland. Catherine cannot read or write. The family is residing in Clear Creek Township, Fairfield County, Ohio.

1850 United States Census, Clear Creek Township, Fairfield County, Ohio

Elsewhere, we learn that the children are listed as follows:

2. Lewis LEATHERS b: 15 Jan 1827 in Ohio
3. Elizabeth LEATHERS b: 8 Jun 1829 in Fairfield, Ohio
4. Mary Elizabeth LEATHERS b: 2 Feb 1832 in Fairfield, Ohio
5. Harrison LEATHERS b: 30 Oct 1834 in Amanda, Fairfield County, Ohio
6. John F. LEATHERS b: 18 Aug 1837 in Ohio
7. Abraham LEATHERS Rev. b: 19 Apr 1841 in Fairfield, Ohio
8. Wesley LEATHERS b: 1843
9. Sarah Mariah LEATHERS b: Nov 1844 in Fairfield, Ohio

Sometime between 1850 and 1860, Christian moves his family to Van Wert County, Ohio, where they settle in Ridge Township. All of the children but Abraham have now moved out. Christian is now 60 and still married to Catherine (58) with Abraham (19) still single at home. Christian shows real estate value of $1600 and personal estate value of $400.

1860 United States Census, Ridge Township, Van Wert County, Ohio

What is important to note is that on the same census page, we learn that son Harrison lives just a few houses away. Harrison (25) has married M.A. (23) and have a young child named Ambrose (1). The family shows real estate value of $800 and personal estate value of $264.

1860 United States Census, Ridge Township, Van Wert County, Ohio

The United States is engaged in a very personal battle between states over slavery, and the Leathers family is no stranger to the war. Sometime in the early part of this decade, Christian Leathers joins Company G of the 41st Illinois Infantry. He is a Private fighting on the side of the Union. It is unclear how or where Christian died (whether it was part of the Civil War or not), but he dies September 17, 1864, at the age of 64 years, 3 months, and 22 days. He is buried in Ridge Cemetery in Van Wert County, Ohio (Section Old A, Row 16). After Christian's death, his wife lives with daughter Sarah Moneysmith.

A 1928 request to have Christian Leathers interred in a National Cemetery for his Civil War service

Christian Leathers, died September 17, 1864, Ridge Cemetery, Van Wert County, Ohio

As with most of the rest of the country, the Civil War was a family affair. Not only was father Christian a soldier, but son Harrison was also fighting for the Union. Quite a bit is known about this gentleman's faithful albeit painful service to his side of the country.

Harrison Leathers was born October 31, 1834, to Christian (January 10, 1800-September 17, 1864) and Catherine (Shupe) Leathers (December 26, 1803-December 27, 1879), both of whom had migrated to Ohio with their parents as small children. The Leathers family consisted of eight children including Harrison: Noah, who died in infancy; Louis; Eliza, later the wife of Jacob Fowler; Abraham; and Sara, later the wife of S. R. Moneysmith. The Leathers arrived in Van Wert County in 1852, probably from Amanda, Ohio, and established a farm in Section #34 in Ridge Township.

Leathers married Martena Adaline Cummings, the daughter of Emanuel and Mary (Redman) Cummings on 15 April 1858. The couple had four children: Edmond Ambrose, a farmer who married Jennie Bell; William Creighton, employed by the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railroad, who married first Ella Young and then Jennie Leslie; Delora Virginia, who married W. C. Gilliland; and Florence Emma Bell, who married J. G. Prill.

Leathers enlisted as a private in Company A of the 99th Regiment of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry August 5, 1862, for a term of three years. In September and October of 1862 his company was involved in skirmishing with the enemy south of Louisville, Kentucky and was engaged in a battle near Perryville, Kentucky on September 10. At about this time, Leathers became ill, suffering from chronic diarrhea. He remained with his company until continued illness forced his hospitalization, first in Lebanon, Kentucky and then in New Albany, Indiana, where he arrived November 4, 1862. He returned to Louisville on January 8 but still felt periodically unwell.

On February 1, 1863, he rejoined his company which was then in Nashville, but, suffering once again from diarrhea, was moved to the General Field Hospital April 30, 1863. From then until November of 1864, he was in hospitals in Nashville, Louisville, Cincinnati and Camp Denison (near Cincinnati).
Leathers spent the rest of the war in what he referred to as the "Invalid Corps," the 17th Regiment of the Veteran Reserve Corps. This regiment was organized in January of 1864 and stationed at Indianapolis, Indiana and was active in controlling liquor sales to soldiers passing through the city, guarding military stores, pursuing and arresting deserters, enforcing the draft law, guarding a military prison near the city, and conducting recruits and draftees to the front and prisoners to other prisons.

Leathers was transferred to the Regiment October 30, 1864, and arrived in Indianapolis with a group of men from Camp Denison on November 14. Between then and his discharge June 30, 1865, Leathers was a private in this regiment, performing such duties as working in the cookhouse, guarding the pay master's office, and acting as orderly. He was detailed several times to conduct prisoners or recruits, once to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During the time he was in Indianapolis, he was visited by his wife and members of his family and also was able to travel to Van Wert several times on leaves and furloughs.

After the War, Leathers returned to his family in Van Wert to continue his life as a farmer. By 1896 he owned 172 acres of farm land in Ridge Township, some lots in Middlepoint, and conducted a milling operation. He and his wife were active in the local Lutheran Church, in which he was an officer for over thirty years, and served for a long period as Sunday School Superintendent. He was also active in the local Republican Party and served as clerk, trustee, and assessor for Ridge Township. Leathers continued to play an active role in the social and civic life of his community until his death June 5, 1902.

Harrison Leathers, died June 5, 1902, Ridge Cemetery, Van Wert County, Ohio

We pick up the story with Edmond Ambrose, eldest son of Harrison Leathers. We also know quite a bit about this gentleman.

From the History of Van Wert County: Edmond A. Leathers, one of the prominent and representative farmers and stockraisers of Ridge township, whose well-improved farm of 120 acres is situated in section 34, was born in Ridge township, on February 26, 1859, and is a son of Harrison and Martena A. (Cummings) Leathers. The father was born in Fairfield County, Ohio, October 30, 1834, and was a son of Christian Leathers, who was of German extraction but a native of Maryland. The parents came to Ohio at an early day, and in Harrison's boyhood settled in Ridge township, Van Wert County. The latter spent the remainder of his life in the township named, where he died June 5. 1902. He was a prominent and valued citizen, and served efficiently in a number of the local offices, at various times being assessor and township clerk. During the greater part of his life he was an elder in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the General Synod. He was a valued member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and his burial was conducted according to the ritual of the order. His widow still resides in Ridge township.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Harrison Leathers were : Edmond A., of this sketch; William C. and Delora V. (Mrs. William C. Gilliland) both of Ridge township; and Florence E., wife of John G. Prill, of Payne, Paulding County, Ohio.

Edmond A. Leathers was reared in Ridge township and was educated in both its public and private schools as well as at Van Wert. After completing his education, he taught for four consecutive years in Willshire and Liberty townships, and after his marriage settled on his present valuable farm on which he has erected one of the most attractive modern residences in the township. The land owned by the estate of the late Harrison Leathers has become doubly valuable on account of the great development of oil upon it. In 1901 there was drilled on the farm mentioned, which is situated in section 34, Ridge township, an oil-well which, for 33 consecutive days, flowed 250 barrels of oil per day, without being pumped. Later pumping machinery was installed and oil was produced in large, paying quantities.
Edmond Ambrose Leathers

On June 3, 1883, Mr. Leathers was married to Mary J. Bell, who was born in Ashland County, Ohio, and is a daughter of James and Charlotte (Reame) Bell. Seven children have been born to this marriage, namely : James H., Arthur M., Urban C., Clara B., Earl E., Beulah B. and Luther E.

Politically Mr. Leathers is usually in accord with the Republican party. He has served several terms as assessor of Ridge township and as land appraiser, his knowledge in this direction being very considerable. Fraternally he belongs to Van Wert Lodge, No. 251, I. O. O. F., which he joined in 1880; the Knights of Pythias, at Middlepoint, and the Modern Woodmen, at Van Wert. Since his youth he has been a member of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, is an elder in the Ridge township church, is serving as secretary of the joint council of the Salem charge, and is also a church trustee. In short, he is a man in whom his neighbors have placed implicit confidence for many years—one of the township's most intelligent and representative men, in every relation of life.
The Leathers family is spoken of very highly. Edmond passes away in 1825 in Van Wert County, Ohio.
Edmond's son James Harrison is where the story continues. James Harrison was born April 25, 1884, in Ridge Township, Van Wert County, Ohio. We find him living with his large family in this same county in 1900. James is 16 years old and a farm laborer along with his other three brothers, most likely on their dad's farm. Edmond is shown as owning a home free and clear.
1900 United States Census, Ridge Township, Van Wert County, Ohio
Wealth hits this family in 1901 with the finding of oil on their farm, and it appears that the course of this family's life is appreciably altered. We do not have a record of James Harrison in 1910 or 1920, although we find Edmond and family still residing in Van Wert County. James Harrison later appears in 1922, though, a couple of states over in Illinois. He marries Cora Alice Dedrick on August 27, 1922, at the age of 38. Below we find a picture of this couple with a picture taken in Van Wert County. It's unknown how or where they met. Although not known to be fact, it appears that James has moved to Illinois to follow an oil job. We know that James Harrison would work for Marathon as an oil worker. Is it possible that these oil contacts with Marathon started with the finding of oil on his dad's farm?

James Harrison Leathers, taken in Van Wert County, Ohio

Cora and James Harrison Leathers, taken in Van Wert County, Ohio

We finally find this family in 1930 during the United States Census. James Harrison (45) and Cora (37) are living in Oblong Township, Crawford County, Illinois. They have two little daughters living with them: Betty J. (4) and Mary L. (0 months). James Harrison is a pumper on an oil field, and he and his family own a home worth $1500. They have a radio set. Cora was born in Illinois, although her dad was born in Pennsyvlania and her mother in Illinois.

James Harrison Leathers (back left) with farmers and oil workers

A family picture is taken in Robinson, Illinois. Cora is on the right with Edmond Ambrose Leathers in the front with the moustache.

The Leathers Family Photo, Robinson, Illinois

Harrison Leathers dies at the young age of 61 years old. Cora and Harrison have three children, two of whom survived. Young Harrison Leathers, Jr., named in honor of his father did not make it past infancy. Mary Louise lived from 1929-1980.

Betty Jane and Mary Louise Leathers, Oblong, Illinois

Obituary for James Harrison Leathers, Jr.

The family has finally made it to Illinois, but the family still resides several counties away from Logan County. What brings young Betty to move away from her family? It's her job. Betty attends the Eastern Illinois Teacher's School in Charleston, Illinois, for college. As part of her agreement for receiving education, she student teaches there, then takes her first teaching position in Sparta, Illinois. After her tenure is up with Sparta, she is unable to find another available teaching position, and the school season is fast-approaching!

She finally learns of a teaching position in a small rural town called Hartsburg, Illinois, and it's her only opportunity she has for teaching that school year. So out of the sheer need for a teaching job, Betty Jane Leathers moves northwest to Logan County, Illinois.

The Leathers have finally made it to Logan County.